by Roy W. Smith published in 1946
Page 17

the turn he is using. If he is an experienced pitcher, he will do well to stay with the one he has used for so long.

Without proper coaching, many beginners make a great mistake by starting out with the 3/4 turn. Because it is easy to watch in flight, they deceice themselves in thinking it to be their natural turn. There are a number of reasons why this turn is a poor one. 1. To be controlled, it is usually pitched rather low and hard which causes the player to acquire a stiff-armed delivery and makes it difficult for him to change to one of the better turns. 2. A shoe that turns less than 1 1/4 times seems to go too straight on the peg and is hard to control in the air. More ringers are lost with the 3/4 turn than any other because it does not have the flight wobble necessary to break the fall of landing or to prevent it from going too straight on and rebounding from the stake. 3. While over 90% of the shoes can be made to land open, the way in which the shoe must be delivered is not conductive to accurate alignment. As a rule, the shoe is swung past the leg in the flat or broadside position which often prevents a straight swing to the stake. In order to get the shoe past his leg without hitting it, the player must either pull his leg to one side or swing the shoe farther out from his body. This ruins the alignment and the shoe, traveling hard, often skids out of scoring radius. 4. Very few pitchers are able to average much over 60% ringers in match play with the 3-4 turn. No major or national tournament can be won with it.

A turn that is faster than the 1 3/4 is also difficult to watch and control in flight because it has too much speed to permit proper timing. Then too, it requires too much arm and wrist effort to secure the turn. All the star pitchers throughout the country use either the 1 1/4 or 1 3/4 turns because they are the most accurate and easiest to control. Many of the champions master all the turns but rely on their more natural and effective one for competitive playing.

Preparatory to making the delivery, extend the shoe out to full-arm length and hold it at about a 45 degree angle to the ground. Some hold it out in the verticle and others use the flat position, but, regardless of the position, the weight feel of the shoe should impart the correct tension for a firm, yet flexible, grip. Once the proper grip has been secured, it should be kept and mastered. One cannot become skillful if he continually changes his hold and methed of delivery.