by Roy W. Smith published in 1946
Page 15

unable to balance the shoe alone, the third finger is used to assist the little finger. Some authorities refer to this as the "gun-handle grip" which is a very good definition because the shoe is held like a pistol with the index finger on the trigger.

   The grip should be a firm yet flexible one, neither too tight nor too loose. Holding too tightly will cause wrist strain and a tired arm. If the grip is not firm enough or the shoe is held on the fingertips, it will often slip before the proper release point is attained.

   When holding for the 1 1/4 turn, the opening is on the left; the 1 3/4 turn places the opening to the right as illustrated. This means, of course, if the player is right-handed; left-handers would hold the opposite way. Don't try the old method of curving the forefinger around one of the heel-calks! This went out of style with the horse and buggy and the proper balance and turn cannot be secured this way. A good balance can be secured by gripping the shoe about half way between the heel and toe. A few days practice will show whether the grip should be shifted a little either way to perfect the balance. The weight of the shoe can be shifted from the first to the main joint of the index finger which will force the shoe farther back in the palm for a more or less full hand grip. The thumb is placed straight across the top of the shoe and pointed between the index and middle fingers. Changing the pointing of the thumb will also change the pointing of the shoe.

   The 1 3/4 turn requires a different muscular action in the shoulder and arm than the 1 1/4 because they are not released in the same manner. By having an additional half turn to make, the 1 3/4 shoe usually opens a little later than the 1 1/4. It is an