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it is best for beginners to obtain those of medium temper, as these stand up quite well and are still not hard enough to cause excessive bouncing.

     In pitching horseshoes the object is, of course, to cause the shoe to encircle the stake for a ringer. Consistent pitching of ringers can be attained only after you have mastered the art of throwing the "open shoe," meaning, of course, a shoe which arrives at the stake with open end foremost so as to more readily create ringers. It can be seen that the pitching of a horseshoe to make a ringer is quite an exact science which has become more and more exacting as the years have added knowledge to players.
     A few years ago there were many ways to throw an open shoe which were deemed good enough for first class competition. Among some of the ways used was the three-quarter flop shoe, a shoe which turned clockwise three-quarters of a turn and flopped over end for end at the sam6 time. This was a very popular throw some years ago, and is still used extensively among the older players. It is commonly called the "Lazy Dan." Another pitch closely allied to the "Lazy Dan" is the three-quarter turn without the flop. This turn is somewhat better than toe flop shoe. Other clockwise turns include the "one turn," the "two turn," and "two and one-quarter," and "two and three quarter." Of these four turns, the first two are very difficult to master for it is apparent that to throw a one or two-turn shoe you must grasp the shoe somewhere around the toe calk, and such a grip involves the risk of cutting fingers on the sharp edges of the toe calk. The wearing of gloves eliminates- the danger of cuts, but gloves subtract from a pitcher's efficiency, for too many shoes slip from the player's grasp if he wears gloves. The second two of these four turns, the two and one-quarter and the two and three-quarter turns necessitate too much spin on the shoe to allow for good control. There are a few players who have done well with these turns, but they are exceptions.
     There is an occasional player who uses a counter-clockwise turn on his shoe. This is commonly known as a "reverse" turn, but it is little more than a freak, and should never be used as it is too hard on the wrist.
     There are two other turns known as a "tumble" and a "double tumble." In these two turns the pitcher obtains an open shoe by causing the shoe to turn over end for end either once or twice. This idea is not very effective, as this way of pitching is difficult to master, and the least bit of wind will interfere too much.